About the CRAFFT

The CRAFFT is an efficient and effective health screening tool designed to identify substance use, substance-related riding/driving risk, and substance use disorder among youth ages 12-21. It has been implemented as part of universal screening efforts in thousands of busy medical and community health settings, as it yields information that can serve as the basis for early intervention and patient-centered counseling.

The CRAFFT is the most well-studied adolescent substance use screener available and has been shown to be valid for adolescents from diverse socioeconomic and racial/ethnic backgrounds. It is recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics’ Bright Futures Guidelines for preventive care screenings and well-visits, the Center for Medicaid and CHIP Services’ Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT) program, and the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Youth Screening Guide.

The current version of the tool, the CRAFFT 2.1, includes evidence-based revisions to increase the sensitivity and specificity of the tool and includes vaping as a method of administration for marijuana use.


 

Publications

CeASAR Researchers

Publications

  1. Knight JR, Shrier LA, Bravender TD, Farrell M, Vander Bilt J, Shaffer HJ. A new brief screen for adolescent substance abuse. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999;153(6):591-596.
  2. Knight JR, Sherritt L, Shrier LA, Harris SK, Chang G. Validity of the CRAFFT substance abuse screening test among adolescent clinic patients. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002;156(6):607-614.
  3. Knight JR, Sherritt L, Harris SK, Gates EC, Chang G. Validity of brief alcohol screening tests among adolescents: A comparison of the AUDIT, POSIT, CAGE and CRAFFT. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2002;27:67-73.
  4. Levy S, Sherritt L, Harris SK, et al. Test-retest reliability of adolescents’ self-report of substance use. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2004;28(8):1236-1241. .
  5. Knight JR, Harris SK, Sherritt L, Van Hook S, Lawrence N, Brooks T, Carey P, Kossack R, Kulig J. Prevalence of positive substance abuse screen results among adolescent primary care patients. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Nov 2007;161(11):1035-1041.
  6. Rojas NL, Sherritt L, Harris SK, Knight JR. The role of parental consent in adolescent substance use research. J Adolesc Health 2008;42:192-7.
  7. Levy S, Sherritt L, Gabrielli J, Shrier L, Knight JR. Screening adolescents for substance use-related high-risk sexual behaviors. J Adolesc Health 2009:45;473-7.
  8. Hassan A, Harris SK, Sherritt L, Van Hook S, Brooks T, Carey P, Kossack R, Kulig J, Knight JR. Primary care follow-up plans for adolescents with substance use problems. Pediatr 2009;124;144-150.
  9. Harris SK, Louis-Jacques J, Knight JR. Screening and brief intervention for alcohol and other abuse. Adolesc Med State Art Rev. 2014;25(1):126-156.
  10. Harris SK, Knight JR. Putting the screen in screening: technology-based alcohol screening and brief interventions in medical settings. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews. 2014;36(1):63-79
  11. Hadland SE, Harris SK. Youth marijuana use: state of the science for the practicing clinician. Current Opinions in Pediatrics. 2014 Aug;26(4):420-7.
  12. Harris SK, Knight JR, Van Hook S, Sherritt L, Brooks T, Kulig JW, Nordt C, Saitz R. Adolescent substance use screening in primary care: validity of computer self-administered vs. clinician adminstered screening. Subst Abus March 2015; 1-7.
  13. Hadland SE, Knight JR, Harris SK. Medical marijuana: review of the science and implications for developmental behavioral pediatric practice. Journal of Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics. 2015 Feb-Mar;36(2):115-23.
  14. D’Souza-Li L, Harris SK. The future of Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment in adolescent primary care: research directions and dissemination challenges. Current Opinions in Pediatrics. 2016 Aug;28(4):434-40.
  15. Johnson JK, Johnson RM, Hodgkin D, Jones AA, Matteucci AM & Harris SK. Heterogeneity of state medical marijuana laws and adolescent recent use of alcohol and marijuana: Analysis of 45 states, 1991-2011. Subst Use. 2017; 39.
  16. Hadland SE, Copelas SH, Harris SK. Trajectories of substance use frequency among adolescents seen in primary care: implications for screening. Journal of Pediatrics. 2017 May;184:178-185.
  17. Harris SK, Aalsma MC, Weitzman ER, Garcia-Huidobro D, Wong C, Hadland SE, Santelli J, Park MJ, Ozer EM. Research on clinical preventive services for adolescents and young adults: where are we and where do we need to go? Journal of Adolescent Health, 2017 Mar;60(3):249-260. PMCID: PMC5549464.
  18. Gómez P, Harris SK, Barreiro C, Isorna M, Rial A. Profiles of Internet use and parental involvement, and rates of online risks and problematic Internet use among Spanish adolescents. Computers in Human Behavior. 2017;75:826-833.
  19. Golpe S, Gómez P, Harris SK, Braña T, Rial A. Gender differences in the use of the Internet among Spanish adolescents. Behavioral Psychology / Psicología Conductual: Revista Internacional Clínica y de la Salud. 2017;25(1):129-146.
  20. Levy S, Ziemnik RE, Harris SK, Rabinow L, Breen L, Fluet C, Strother H, Straus JH. Screening adolescents for alcohol use: tracking practice trends of Massachusetts pediatricians. Journal of Addiction Medicine. 2017 Nov/Dec;11(6):427-434.
  21. O’Brien KHM, Knight JR, Harris SK. A Call for Social Responsibility and Suicide Risk Screening, Prevention and Early Intervention Following the Release of the Netflix Streaming Series, 13 Reasons Why. JAMA Internal Medicine. 2017 Oct 1;177(10):1418-1419. PubMed PMID: 28759674.
  22. Shrier LA, Sarda V, Jonestrask C, Harris SK. Momentary factors during marijuana use as predictors of lapse during attempted abstinence in young adults. Addictive Behaviors. 2018. 83:167-174. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.12.032.
  23. Sneider JT, Cohen-Gilbert JE, Hamilton DE, Stein ER, Golan N, Oot EN, Seraikas AM, Rohan ML,Harris SK, Nickerson LD, Silveri MM. Adolescent hippocampal and prefrontal brain activation during performance of the virtual Morris Water Task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 2018; Volume 12; Article 238. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2018.00238.
  24. Rial A, Harris SK, Knight JR, Araujo M, Gómez  P**, Braña T, Varela J, Golpe  Empirical validation of the CRAFFT abuse screening test in a Spanish sample: Psychometric properties and recommendations. Adicciones. 2018 Jan 15;0(0):1105. doi: 10.20882/adicciones.1105.
  25. Harris SK, Johnson J, Knight JR. Governmental Policy on Cannabis Legalization and Cannabis as Medicine: Impact on Youth. In The ASAM Principles of Addiction Medicine, Sixth Edition, ed. by SC Miller, DA Fiellin, RN Rosenthal, R Saitz. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2018.
  26. Brooks TL, Knight JR, Harris SK. Screening and brief intervention for adolescents. In The ASAM Principles of Addiction Medicine, Sixth Edition, ed. by SC Miller, DA Fiellin, RN Rosenthal, R Saitz. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2018.
  27. Knight, JR, Kuzubova K, Csemy L, Sherritt L, Copelas S, Harris SK. Computer-facilitated screening and brief advice to reduce adolescents’ heavy episodic drinking: a study in two countries. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2018 Jan;62(1):118-120. doi: 10.1016
  28. Knight JR, Csemy L, Sherritt L, et al. Screening and brief advice to reduce adolescents’ risk of riding with substance-using drivers. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2018; 79(4): 611-616. 
  29. Shrier LA, Burke PJ, Kells M, Scherer EA, Sarda V, Jonestrask CJ, Xuan Z, Harris SK. Pilot randomized trial of MOMENT, a motivational counseling-plus-Ecological Momentary Intervention to reduce marijuana use in youth. mHealth. 2018 Jul 30;4:29. doi: 10.21037/mhealth.2018.07.04. eCollection 2018.
  30. McCarty C, Levy, S, Harris SK. Alcohol Use Screening and Behavioral Counseling with Adolescents in Primary Care: A Call to Action. JAMA Pediatrics. 2019 Jan 1;173(1):12-14. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.4171.
  31. Chadi N, Hadland SE, Harris SK. Understanding the implications of the “vaping epidemic” among adolescents and young adults: A call to action. Subst Abus. 2019;18:1-4.
  32. Hadland SE, Knight JR, Harris SK. Alcohol use disorder: A pediatric-onset condition needing early detection and intervention. Pediatrics. 2019;143(3). 
  33. Knight JR, Sherritt L, Gibson EB, Levinson J, Grubb LK, Samuels RC, Silva T, Vernacchio L, Wornham W, Harris SK. Effect of computer-based substance use screening and brief behavioral counseling vs. usual care for adolescents in pediatric primary care: a pilot randomized clinical trial. JAMA Network Open. 2019 Jun 5;2(6):e196258. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.6258.
  34. Levy S, Wiseblatt A, Straus JH, Strother H, Fluet C,Harris SK.Adolescent SBIRT practices among pediatricians in Massachusetts. Journal of Addiction Medicine. June 5, 2019 – Volume Publish Ahead of Print – Issue – p doi: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000551
  35. Chen Y, Harris SK, Worthington EL, VanderWeele TJ. Religiously or spiritually-motivated forgiveness and subsequent health and well-being among young adults: an outcome-wide analysis. Journal of Positive Psychology. 2019;14(5):649-658. doi: 10.1080/17439760.2018.1519591.
  36. Ganapathi L, McFall AL, Srikrishnan AL, Kumar MS, Anand S, Lucas GM, Mehta S, Harris SK, Solomon S. Young people who inject drugs in India have high HIV incidence and behavioural risk: a cross-sectional study. Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2019 May, 22:e25287. doi: 10.1002/jia2.25287.
  37. Knight JR, Sherritt L, Gibson EB, Levinson J, Grubb LK, Samuels RC, Silva T, Vernacchio L, Wornham W, Harris SK. Effect of computer-based substance use screening and brief behavioral counseling vs. usual care for adolescents in pediatric primary care: a pilot randomized clinical trial. JAMA Network Open. 2019 Jun 5;2(6):e196258. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.6258.
  38. Maksimovskiy A, Oot E, Seraikas A, Rieselbach M, Caine C, Sneider J, Cohen-Gilbert J, Harris SK, Nickerson L, Rohan M, Silveri M. Morphometric biomarkers of adolescents with familial risk for alcohol use disorder. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 2019 Nov;43(11):2354-2366. doi: 10.1111/acer.14201.
  39. Hassan A, Harris SK, Knight JR. Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) in a Primary Care and Pediatric Setting. Clinical Manual of Youth Addictive Disorders. Ed. by Y Kaminer, K Winters. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatry Association Publishing. 2019.
  40. Shrier LA, Xuan Z, Harris SK. Changes in cannabis use-related factors prior to a self-quit attempt in young adults. Cannabis. 2020; 3(1):31-40.

Posters and Presentations

  1. Flynn A, Knight JR, Sherrit L, Harris SK. Does Perceived Risk of harm Mediate the Effects of a Primary Care Alcohol Screening and Brief Advice Intervention for Adolescents?Association for Medical Education and Research in Substance Abuse annual conference, Washington D.C., 2017.
  2. Gibson EB, Knight JR, Finlayson J, Sherritt L, Harris SK. Clinician’s Responses to a Computer-Facilitated Substance Use Screening and Brief Advice System for Primary Care. Poster presented at Association for Medical Education and Research in Substance Abuse annual conference, Washington D.C., 2017.
  3. Harris SK, Sherritt L, Gibson EB, et al. Primary Care Testing of the National Institute for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism’s (NIAAA) Youth Screener for Identifying Underage Alcohol Use Severity. Association for Medical Education and Research in Substance Abuse annual conference, Washington D.C., 2017.
  4. Harris SK, Sherritt L, Copelas S, Knight JR, Research P for ASA. Reliability and Validity of Past-12-Month Frequency Items as Opening Questions for the Updated CRAFFT Adolescent Substance Use Screening System. Poster presented at Association for Medical Education and Research in Substance Abuse annual conference, Washington D.C., 2016.
  5. Showalter E, Knight JR, Sherritt L, Harris SK. Is screentime important?: Efficacy of a computer-facilitated brief intervention for reducing adolescent substance use is predicted by viewing time. Association for Medical Education and Research in Substance Abuse annual conference, Washington D.C., 2016.
  6. Harris SK, Sherrit L, Copelas S, Knight JR, Partnership for Adolescent Substance Abuse Research. Reliabilty and validity of past-12-month frequence items as opening questions for the updated CRAFFT adolescent substance use screening system. International Network for Brief Interventions for Alcohol and Other Drugs, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2016.

External Researchers

  1. Abbott PJ. Screening American Indian/Alaska natives for alcohol abuse and dependence in medical settings. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2011;4(4):210-214. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21999696.
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  3. Alayan N, Shell L. Screening adolescents for substance use: The role of NPs in school settings. Nurse Pract. 2016;41(5):1-6.
  4. Alderson H, McGovern R, Brown R, et al. Supporting Looked After Children and Care Leavers In Decreasing Drugs, and alcohol (SOLID): protocol for a pilot feasibility randomised controlled trial of interventions to decrease risky substance use (drugs and alcohol) and improve mental health of look. 2017;3(1):25.
  5. Alinsky RH, Percy K, Adger H Jr, Fertsch D, Trent M. Substance Use Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment in Pediatric Practice: A Quality Improvement Project in the Maryland Adolescent and Young Adult Health Collaborative Improvement and Innovation Network [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jan 29]. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2020;9922820902441. doi:10.1177/0009922820902441
  6. Araújo P, Carvalho MGN, van Weelden M, Lourenço B, Queiroz LB, Silva CA. Substance misuse and sexual function in adolescents with chronic diseases. Rev Paul Pediatr. 2016;34(3):323-329.
  7. Arnaud N, Baldus C, Elgán TH, et al. Effectiveness of a Web-Based Screening and Fully Automated Brief Motivational Intervention for Adolescent Substance Use: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Med Internet Res. 2016;18(5):e103.
  8. Amaud N, Bröning S, Drechsel M, Thomasius R, Baldus C. Web-based screening and brief intervention for poly-drug use among teenagers: study protocol of a multicentre two-arm randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2012;12(1):826.
  9. Atilola O, Ayinde O, Adeitan O. Beyond prevalence and pattern: problematic extent of alcohol and substance use among adolescents in Ibadan South-west Nigeria. Afr Health Sci. 2013;13(3):777-784.
  10. Atilola O, Ola B, Abiri G, et al. Status of mental-health services for adolescents with psychiatric morbidity in youth correctional institutions in Lagos. 2017;29(1):63-83. doi:10.2989/17280583.2017.1321550.
  11. Atilola O, Stevanovic D, Balhara YPS, et al. Role of personal and family factors in alcohol and substance use among adolescents: an international study with focus on developing countries. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2014;21(7):609-617.
  12. Bagley SM, Anderson BJ, Stein MD. Usefulness of the CRAFFT to Diagnose Alcohol or Cannabis Use Disorders in a Sample of Emerging Adults with Past-Month Alcohol or Cannabis Use. J Child Adolesc Subst Abuse. 2017;26(1):18-23.
  13. Beeley P, Scriba CJ. [In search of new paths. The self image of the Leopoldina and the Royal Society in London in its correspondence 1670-1677]. Acta Hist Leopoldina. 2008;(49):305-326. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20617620.
  14. Bertini MC, Busaniche J, Baquero F, et al. Transcultural adaptation and validation of the CRAFFT as a screening test for problematic alcohol and substance use, abuse and dependence in a group of Argentine adolescents. Arch Argent Pediatr. 2015;113(2):114-118.
  15. Braaten K, Briegleb C, Hauke S, Niamkey N, Chang G. Screening pregnant young adults for alcohol and drug use: a pilot study. J Addict Med. 2008;2(2):74-78.
  16. Burke PJ, O’Sullivan J, Vaughan BL. Adolescent substance use: brief interventions by emergency care providers. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2005;21(11):770-776. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16280955.
  17. Chang G, Ondersma SJ, Blake-Lamb T, Gilstad-Hayden K, Orav EJ, Yonkers KA. Identification of substance use disorders among pregnant women: A comparison of screeners. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019;205:107651. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.107651
  18. Chang G, Orav EJ, Jones JA, Buynitsky T, Gonzalez S, Wilkins-Haug L. Self-reported alcohol and drug use in pregnant young women: a pilot study of associated factors and identification. J Addict Med. 2011;5(3):221-226.
  19. Chenneville T, Gabbidon K, Lynn C, Rodriguez C. Psychological factors related to resilience and vulnerability among youth with HIV in an integrated care setting. AIDS Care. 2018;30(sup4):5–11. doi:10.1080/09540121.2018.1488032
  20. Christie G, Marsh R, Sheridan J, et al. The substances and choices scale (SACS)–the development and testing of a new alcohol and other drug screening and outcome measurement instrument for young people. Addiction. 2007;102(9):1390-1398.
  21. Colica D, Campana V, Vázquez Peña FR, Barán Cegla P, Viettoa V. Psychometric properties and operating characteristics of the Spanish-adapted version of the CRAFFT questionnaire in adolescents from Greater Buenos Aires. Propiedades psicométricas y características operativas de la versión adaptada al castellano del cuestionario CRAFFT en adolescentes del conurbano bonaerense. Arch Argent Pediatr. 2019;117(5):301–305. doi:10.5546/aap.2019.eng.301
  22. Colomer-Pérez N, Chover-Sierra E, Navarro-Martínez R, Andriusevičienė V, Vlachou E, Cauli O. Alcohol and Drug Use in European University Health Science Students: Relationship with Self-Care Ability. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(24):5042. Published 2019 Dec 11. doi:10.3390/ijerph16245042
  23. Connery HS, Albright BB, Rodolico JM. Adolescent substance use and unplanned pregnancy: strategies for risk reduction. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2014;41(2):191-203.
  24. Cook RL, Chung T, Kelly TM, Clark DB. Alcohol screening in young persons attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Comparison of AUDIT, CRAFFT, and CAGE instruments. J Gen Intern Med. 2005;20(1):1-6.
  25. Cote-Menendez, M., Uribe-Isaza, M., & Prieto-Suárez, E. (2013). Validación para Colombia de la escala Crafft para tamización de consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en adolescentes. Revista de Salud Pública, 15(2), 220–232.
  26. Cummins LH, Chan KK, Burns KM, Blume AW, Larimer M, Marlatt GA. Validity of the CRAFFT in American-Indian and Alaska-Native adolescents: screening for drug and alcohol risk. J Stud Alcohol. 2003;64(5):727-732. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14572196.
  27. D’Amico EJ, Parast L, Meredith LS, Ewing BA, Shadel WG, Stein BD. Screening in Primary Care: What Is the Best Way to Identify At-Risk Youth for Substance Use? Pediatrics. 2016;138(6).
  28. Dhalla S, Zumbo BD, Poole G. A review of the psychometric properties of the CRAFFT instrument: 1999-2010. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2011;4(1):57-64. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21466499.
  29. Dieppe C, Stanhope B, Rakhra K. Children who harm themselves: development of a paediatric emergency department triage tool. Emerg Med J. 2009;26(6):418-420.
  30. Diestelkamp S, Kriston L, Arnaud N, et al. Drinking patterns of alcohol intoxicated adolescents in the emergency department: A latent class analysis. Addict Behav. 2015;50:51-59.
  31. Diestelkamp S, Wartberg L, Kaess M, et al. Effectiveness of a web-based screening and brief intervention with weekly text-message-initiated individualised prompts for reducing risky alcohol use among teenagers: study protocol of a randomised controlled trial within the ProHEAD consortium. Trials. 2019;20(1):73. Published 2019 Jan 22. doi:10.1186/s13063-018-3160-z
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  33. Gabrielli J, Jackson Y, Brown S. Associations Between Maltreatment History and Severity of Substance Use Behavior in Youth in Foster Care. Child Maltreat. September 2016.
  34. Gamarel KE, Nelson KM, Brown L, Fernandez MI, Nichols S, Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Intervention. The Usefulness of the CRAFFT in Screening for Problematic Drug and Alcohol Use Among Youth Living with HIV. AIDS Behav. 2017;21(7):1868-1877.
  35. Golpe S, Gómez P, Braña T, Varela J, Rial A. The relationship between consumption of alcohol and and other drugs and problematic Internet use among adolescents. Adicciones. 2017;29(4):268-277.
  36. Grall-Bronnec M, Laforgue EJ, Challet-Bouju G, et al. Prevalence of Coaddictions and Rate of Successful Treatment Among a French Sample of Opioid-Dependent Patients With Long-Term Opioid Substitution Therapy: The OPAL Study. Front Psychiatry. 2019;10:726. Published 2019 Oct 17. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00726
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  38. Heradstveit O, Skogen JC, Hetland J, Stewart R, Hysing M. Psychiatric Diagnoses Differ Considerably in Their Associations With Alcohol/Drug-Related Problems Among Adolescents. A Norwegian Population-Based Survey Linked With National Patient Registry Data. Front Psychol. 2019;10:1003. Published 2019 May 8. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01003
  39. Kabíček P, Kobr J, Šašek L, et al. Alcohol and drug intoxications in adolescents admitted to paediatric wards in the Czech Republic: 5-year retrospective study 2006-2010. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2018;26(1):39–44. doi:10.21101/cejph.a4644
  40. Källmén H, Berman AH, Jayaram-Lindström N, Hammarberg A, Elgán TH. Psychometric Properties of the AUDIT, AUDIT-C, CRAFFT and ASSIST-Y among Swedish Adolescents. Eur Addict Res. 2019;25(2):68–77. doi:10.1159/000496741
  41. Kirkpatrick ZA, Boyd CJ. Stimulant Use Among Undergraduate Nursing Students. J Addict Nurs. 2018;29(2):84–89. doi:10.1097/JAN.0000000000000219
  42. Kulak JA, Griswold KS. Adolescent Substance Use and Misuse: Recognition and Management. Am Fam Physician. 2019;99(11):689–696
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  44. Mello MJ, Bromberg JR, Wills H, et al. Alcohol and Other Drug Use in a Sample of Admitted Adolescent Trauma Patients. J Subst Abus Alcohol. 2018;6(2):1077.
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  46. Monico LB, Mitchell SG, Dusek K, et al. A Comparison of Screening Practices for Adolescents in Primary Care After Implementation of Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment. J Adolesc Health. 2019;65(1):46–50. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2018.12.005
  47. Navarro-Martínez R, Chover-Sierra E, Colomer-Pérez N, Vlachou E, Andriuseviciene V, Cauli O. Sleep quality and its association with substance abuse among university students. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2020;188:105591. doi:10.1016/j.clineuro.2019.105591
  48. Ng JW, Kwan R, Cheok CC. Clinical and Functional Outcomes in Young Adult Males With ADHD. J Atten Disord. 2017;21(6):465–474. doi:10.1177/1087054714548034
  49. Ola B, Atilola O. Validation of the CRAFFT in youth correctional institutions in Lagos, Nigeria. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2017;45(4):439-446.
  50. Ondersma SJ, Chang G, Blake-Lamb T, et al. Accuracy of five self-report screening instruments for substance use in pregnancy. Addiction. 2019;114(9):1683–1693. doi:10.1111/add.14651
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  52. Shenoi RP, Linakis JG, Bromberg JR, et al. Predictive Validity of the CRAFFT for Substance Use Disorder. Pediatrics. 2019;144(2):e20183415. doi:10.1542/peds.2018-3415
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  54. Tejedor-Cabrera C, Cauli O. Alcohol and Cannabis Intake in Nursing Students. Medicina (Kaunas). 2019;55(10):628. Published 2019 Sep 24. doi:10.3390/medicina55100628
  55. Winn LAP, Paquette KL, Donegan LRW, Wilkey CM, Ferreira KN. Enhancing adolescent SBIRT with a peer-delivered intervention: An implementation study. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2019;103:14–22. doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2019.05.009